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James Cameron's Avatar has attracted more intense analysis, and been held accountable by standards rather higher, than is normal for expensive SF extravaganzas. When one likes the film quite a lot, as I do, it becomes necessary to address critiques which have some validity, and also to look at the extent to which Cameron intermittently, but not unintelligently, pre-emptively covered at least some of the arguments raised against him. (Inevitably, this means that this review will contain many very detailed spoilers.)

To begin with, a quick summary is in order. Twenty-second century Earth is a war-torn dystopian capitalist mess; Pandora is an idyllic world whose inhabitants lead a life integrated with nature—and this is, as human scientists have discovered, no mere metaphor. Pandoran life forms, both animal and apparently vegetable, are either permanently wired into each other's nervous systems or can do so on a regular basis via tassles, clusters of small tentacles. It is strongly implied throughout, and by the end more or less explicit, that the Pandoran biosphere is literally a vast, intelligent, and reasoning being; the Pandorans live in the objective presence of their god Eywa. The Pandoran atmosphere is inimical to Earth life—humans can only breathe it for a couple of minutes without toxic consequences. For this and a number of other reasons, "avatars" have been developed, blends of human and Pandoran DNA which can be inhabited by a sleeping human mind and lapse into sleep when the human wakes up—interestingly, the Pandorans know perfectly well that these avatars are alien creatures.

One of these avatars has been constructed for a scientist called Sully, who was killed in a mugging; his crippled ex-Marine twin Jake (Sam Worthington) is brought in to inhabit it and intrigues the Pandorans partly because he is a warrior and partly because one of their sacred trees indicates that they should. When he is lost and alone in the Pandoran forest, he is suddenly covered in the tree's seed pods and the Pandoran woman Neytiri (Zoe Saldana) reads this as a sign of Eywa's favour. Commissioned by the mercenaries employed by the mining company that is paying for exploration of Pandora to spy out the land, his loyalties gradually shift from his employers and former colleagues to the scientists and the Pandorans, and he realizes that the Na'vi, the people who have taken him in, will not and cannot let themselves be relocated away from the site the company wants to mine, the site of the sacred tree, which is, as it turns out, one of the main nodes of the planet-wide nervous system that Pandoran plant life represents. The tree is nonetheless destroyed, and Sully and the scientists become renegades, helping the Pandorans fight back to defend another even more essential tree-node which the mercenaries have decided to destroy in order to break the Pandorans' spirit permanently. They win and expel the miners and mercenaries from Pandora; Sully asks the tree system to transfer his mind permanently from his human body to his avatar, and it does so.

Some immediate criticisms of this are rendered less effective by the fact that Cameron apparently hopes to make two sequels. The assumption, for example, that Earth will not let matters rest here is not, accordingly, a plot hole but a potential generator of plot. The cruder version of this criticism takes the form of "why don't the humans nuke Pandora from orbit" (to misquote an earlier Cameron film)—the answer to which is twofold, firstly that if you want to mine a rare mineral, contaminating it with massive radiation is a good way to render it unfit for any purpose you have in mind, and secondly that while governments might let mining companies and their thugs have free rein to the extent of genocidal violence, that is not the same as giving them access to nukes.

Unusually for this sort of planetary romance, especially in the movies, the Pandorans are not a monoculture, but a group of societies closely linked by the planet-wide network of plant intelligence. We don't see much of any of the other groups because Jake spends his time with the Na'vi, but at least they exist—and are there to be shown in the sequels. Similarly, although what we see even of Na'avi society is limited, if Cameron has his way we can expect a far fuller picture. Avatar is a long film but there are limits to the number of narrative points it can address, particularly when its main purpose is to show us an unfallen world, not without its dangers and conflicts—if the Na'vi have warriors, presumably there are Pandoran wars—but preferable to the bleak future which faces us, and which is Jake's present.

The most important and telling criticism levelled at the film—to the extent of causing some people to boycott it altogether—is that its central plot structure is a standard neo-colonialist one, in which the Pandorans need the help of a superior being, a white American, to survive and the story is about him, not about them. The argument is that, even granted that sometimes members of a privileged group renounce privilege, telling their story inevitably still privileges them above the unprivileged group whose story is not being told. This charge is not, let us be clear, without merit, though it is hard to see how a film with any other plot structure could be scripted, let alone made in Hollywood at vast expense.

As well as being the Great White Saviour, Jake is that most useful of plot devices, the protagonist who has to be told things; he is also the Man Who Learns Better, and discards earlier convictions; he is also someone who cheerfully signs up for complicity with what he comes to realize is atrocity, and has quite a lot of expiation to do. Yes, the story is about him, but all stories have to be about somebody—Jake is somebody who has been part of the most negative aspects of human society and who comes to understand that he has been exploited and spat out. His relationship to privilege is complicated even at the start. It may be fanciful to think his surname a reference to the great French Protestant rebel and statesman, but, given Cameron's form in such matters as embodied elsewhere in the film, possibly not.

It might be superficially appealing to reimagine the story so that it could have been about a Pandoran coming to understand the degradation of human society. This is superficially attractive, save for the fact that we would need to be shown from the film's inception the underlying assumptions from which such a protagonist was operating. We would need to have an entire alien world and society shown us in what would end up being "As you know, Bob" conversations, and with the risk that such a protagonist's naivete about human institutions would end up being portrayed in a way best described as minstrelsy. Moreover, the process of thinking oneself into the mindset of a Na'vi would almost inevitably involve an even greater appropriation of the identities of actually existing forest hunter-gatherer peoples, which would itself be problematic.

Though the main character arc is Jake's, it should be mentioned that his Na'vi lover Neytiri is a lot more than just a love interest; she trains him in the way of a Na'vi warrior, she is disillusioned when she discovers that he has betrayed them, she kills the blood-thirsty racist human commander Quaritch, and she saves the life of Jake's human body in a moment that shows her both reaching past surfaces to essence, and accepting emotionally as well as intellectually that this is the person she has come to love. If there are to be sequels, it is to be hoped that her story will end more happily than that of Pocohontas; she is one of the film's several moral centres in the way that she teaches Jake to look into the soul of things. "I see you" is one of the key statements of the Na'vi way of life: the words that are said to an animal killed for safety or food, and to a lover at the moment of commitment.

In a post-colonial world, in which we are all dealing with our unconscious assumptions about racism, sexism, imperialism, and capitalism as normative, it is imperative that stories about contacts between cultures be told and inevitable and correct that they will be subject to criticism. These are conversations that need to be had, rather than a set of demands and rules to which creators should sign up. The demand that creators not screw up needs to be the demand that creators try to minimize their screw-ups—and this, I would argue, Cameron has at least endeavoured to do. (District 9 by comparison not only included a lot of "everyone needs a honky" tropes, but was actively, cheerfully, and perniciously racist in its portrayal of Nigerians.) It is not to ignore the problems of any portrayal of these issues to say that sometimes we should avoid making the best be the enemy of the good.

Cameron has made this a film whose hero undergoes two simultaneous and linked conversion experiences, rather than one. The scientists regard Sully as a dumb thug; the Na'vi regard him as a stupid human, and he is driven by the need to prove himself to both groups. In some ways this makes things easier for Cameron: it makes it rather more plausible, for instance, that Sully manages to cram the training of a Na'vi warrior into a few months. He is a highly trained warrior already, who needs to learn a lot of new techniques and start to understand a new way of life—since he is in the process of falling in love with his principal trainer, he has an additional set of motivations. We see that he has adapted already to losing his legs and is fiercely protective of his autonomy and new skills in a society that treats him either as baggage or as an object of pity.

He has lost not only his legs but his twin brother—fairly clearly his identical twin brother, since use of his brother's avatar is predicated on their having identical genomes. Sully has always thought of himself as the dumb, physical brother—in the same period that he becomes a Na'vi warrior, he crash-learns their language partly because he is undergoing an intensive course of study when he is awake in his human body. He also comes to understand that the habit of close tactical observation in which he has been trained as a soldier is not so different from the intense power of observation that a scientist needs. It is because this is the story of Sully's redemption that the scientist mentor whose respect he is as keen to gain as the Na'vi woman he gradually falls for is called Grace Augustine—I did not say that Cameron was subtle.

St Augustine was, of course, the principal Christian theoretician of Original Sin, of the Fall of humanity from grace, so it was always pretty much a given that the Tree the Na'vi inhabit and have a worshipful relationship with was going to Fall, because human beings are fallen creatures and have brought sin to an unfallen world. There are two trees on Pandora—just as there are in much Christian thought: for the latter, the Cross is seen as a tree that is the instrument of redemption just as the tree in Eden was the occasion of the Fall. This is not to imply that Avatar is in any sense a Christian allegory so much as to point out that Cameron, an atheist as far as I know, knows a good mythic story pattern when he sees one; this is, after all, an auteur whose Aliens is full of triple goddess imagery.

Sully betrays one Na'vi tree by describing its internal structure to Quaritch, head of the mercenaries, who uses the information to target the missiles that destroy it; he appeals to the other tree, the Tree of Souls, to help him save it. Significantly, the Tree of Souls has absorbed the memories of Grace Augustine to which he can appeal as evidence for the absolute need of the planetary intelligence to take a stand itself. "We killed our Mother long ago." Sully explains; his conversion includes praying to an actually existing god. The Pandoran understand the fallen nature of humans, but do so intellectually; he, Grace, and their few human allies do so from the inside. Humans fell—we are told—by the desire to know good and evil; the few redeemed humans teach that knowledge to the Pandoran biosphere in order to save it from an equivalent fall.

And while of course the name Pandora is not what its inhabitants call their world, it is interesting that the name the humans have given it is one which links it to another human version of the Fall, just as much as if they had called it Eden, as well they might. Pandora's curiosity unleashed evil into the world, but left humanity with hope. The Greek myth, like the Judaeo-Christian one, has a misogynist element; Jake's betrayal is his and his alone—and his desire to be reconciled with the two women he feels himself accountable to, Neytiri and Grace, is crucial to his choice to redeem himself, by helping the Na'vi save themselves. Moreover Jake betrays the Na'vi twice over, the first time deliberately by agreeing to spy on them and the scientists as a way of getting his legs repaired by the company, and later inadvertently. Video blog entries in which he expresses his growing conviction that the Na'vi will not relocate are appropriated by Quaritch as evidence of the need to move to military action. (It is worth pointing out that this sort of appropriation of video blogs by the military is a live subject of debate among actual current anthropologists involved in debates about Human Terrain projects.)

Like other messiahs, Jake goes through a period of being despised and rejected—the Na'vi generally, and Neytiri in particular, see him rightly as their betrayer. To see Jake's riding of the great red dragon-creature, the Tokkar, simply in terms of his ascending to godhood is to fail to understand that it is only thus that he can get the Na'vi to listen to him at all. Quite explicitly, once victory is won, he sends the Tokkar away and renounces the prestige riding it has brought him—the presence of a dead and preserved Tokkar in the Na'vi hall indicates that previous riders have not given their role up. Even when Jake takes on the role, he makes a point of conciliating the young Na'vi war leader who has consistently mocked and threatened him, and who was betrothed to Neytiri before Jake came into her life; he becomes one of their leaders rather than their leader.

Jake, and the other humans like Trudy Machon (Michelle Rodriguez), who abandon their own people to fight for the Na'vi, bring something actual to the mix. Trudy, of course, brings the helicopter that she pilots and uses suicidally to ram other aircraft; they bring some guns and grenades. Most importantly, they bring Jake's knowledge—some tactical skills, and some pieces of practical knowledge such as the need to go in fast and close head-on to the human aircraft and shoot arrows directly into the cockpit's front window, so as to achieve maximum momentum and kill pilots, rather than letting them glance off the sides. The Na'vi's close spiritual relationship to the land, plants, and animals of their world does not necessarily mean that they intuit the Laws of Motion.

One of the interesting things about Cameron's handling of environmental themes in Avatar is that he has taken one of the standard clichés of pro-environmental sentimentality and rendered it literally true in this science fictional context. The Pandorans genuinely do plug into the natural world via the tassles of nerve fibres which feature in all Pandoran animal life, whether as tails or facial tendrils; the Pandoran biosphere really is one great nervous system; the Pandorans' memories, and indeed Grace's, continue to exist inside the Tree of Souls. (This is almost too good to be true—indeed, I would not be entirely surprised were it to turn out in a later film that Pandora is a post-technological world and that the Pandorans' ancestors bio-engineered this garden. Some carpers have decried the world-building as simplistic—the fact that we probably have two more movies in which to look at Pandora answers that point.)

Cameron has always disliked large corporations in precisely the way you would expect of an artist who is obliged to work with them in order to promote his personal projects. The company in Avatar thinks in short termist ways about the value of rare minerals rather than the financial possibilities of Pandoran life forms. The company's man Parker Selfridge (Giovanni Ribisi) dismisses everything that Grace Augustine tells him about her discoveries as hippy drug fantasies and is as prepared to kill for a small profit for his shareholders and a boost to his career as was his equivalent Burke in Aliens, and is treated with equal contempt.

Even more than an anti-capitalist film—which it clearly is in its simplistic way—Avatar is a film with serious reservations about corruption of warrior values within the military-industrial complex. Quaritch—Stephen Lang—has Miles as his first name, the Latin word for soldier, which makes him potentially a representative of all soldiers. He is a man in love with death, in particular the death of other living creatures. Quaritch carries large knives with him in his military exoskeleton—it's probably worth remembering that General George Patton always wore pearl-handled revolvers in his tank, and that Patton is, as portrayed by George C. Scott, very much the movie archetype to which Cameron is referring back, and who won his spurs in colonial conflict. Aliens—for which he made his cast read Heinlein's Starship Troopers—was a film in which the military life was viewed—not uncynically but with considerable respect; here we notice from the start such negative attitudes among Quaritch's command as their complete lack of respect for a crippled former comrade.

It is not just because of our liking for the Pandorans that we cheer when the military—engaged in a mission that is specifically linked to Iraq by Quaritch's "shock and awe" language—gets its collective arse kicked. Quaritch is specifically seen as demonic in that he tempts Jake with the restoration of his legs. The battle in which he is defeated, and the fight in which he is killed, are also set pieces full of money shots; this is an American film in which we cheer the defeat of a U.S.-style military machine by armed insurgents. The progressive intelligentsia should remember how deeply the film is hated by the Christian and neo-conservative right in America.

Trudy Machon, the pilot who regards the destruction of the tree as a war crime and refuses to take part, is one of the film's four strong female characters: Grace Augustine—Sigourney Weaver; Neytiri; Trudy; Neytiri's mother (C. C. H. Pounder). This is is three more strongly characterized strong women than most Hollywood films and only one of them is the love interest. No-one would call Cameron a feminist, but he respects women and gives them decent parts in his movies.

The point of the movie is its sheer physical beauty. Pandora is almost entirely one huge special effect, an alien world which is not a quarry, or a sand dune, or the forests of the North Pacific coast, and it is often breathtaking. The 3-D effects only occasionally obtrude by sticking a spear-head into one's face—mostly they lend this imaginary world solidity. It might be argued that Pandoran life is a little too close in appearance to Terran analogs—I suspect that they are just alien enough to be clearly so while remaining creatures whose role in an ecology can be recognized by the average viewer.

The Pandorans—humanoids whose looks draw on spider monkeys, cats, and geckoes—are convincingly individualized, all the more so if you compare them with the mass-produced crowds of Titanic. (Some people have criticized the fact that the Pandorans are all based on motion capture of actors of colour; I take it that the point here is to help ensure that we always see the human/Pandoran avatars as clearly different enough that no Pandoran ever thinks of them as precisely the same. It will also doubtless have affected the dynamics between the actors.)

There is an issue with the writing, as there always is with Cameron's work, and that issue is his sticky-fingered approach to other people's work. In Avatar, his borrowings and debts are so many and various that it seems churlish to complain; SF has always been full of echoes and downright thefts. Nonetheless, it seems worth mentioning Cameron's debt to Heinlein, McCaffrey, Le Guin's "The Word for World Is Forest", Anderson's "And Call Me Joe", Harry Harrison's Deathworld and doubtless much else, as well as an equivalent list of movies. He does not so much transform all this material as change it into an assemblage that works.

His early films had comparatively elegant dialogue that to some degree is missing here, as it was in Titanic. Given his record of success, I very much doubt that Cameron is contenting himself with mediocre writing and think it more likely that he is writing on the assumption that his dialogue will have to be translated effectively into every language on the planet and appeal to audiences less acquainted with the long history of its tropes than are readers of Strange Horizons. Titanic was successful because it played well in other cinematic cultures—the Taliban felt obliged to ban Leo DiCaprio haircuts—and it will be interesting to see how Avatar plays outside an Anglo-American context. I suspect that people in Moldova, Botswana, and Papua New Guinea will like it as much as I did; it is certainly playing well in Brazil and Indonesia, that is to say, in countries that are the front-line of the destruction of the remaining rain forests and their inhabitants. With all its flaws, it is conceivable that Avatar is a film which, in some of the places where it will be seen, might make a difference.

Roz Kaveney is a writer and reviewer living in London. Her most recent book is the BSFA Award-nominated Superheroes!; other titles include Reading the Vampire Slayer, From Alien to The Matrix, and Teen Dreams.

Roz Kaveney is a novelist, poet and critic resident in London. Among her publications are Reading the Vampire Slayer, Dialectic of the Flesh, the Rhapsody of Blood sequence, and Tiny Pieces of Skull.
26 comments on “Avatar”

Thank you for saying so well so many things I have also been thinking, particularly about the criticisms of others levelled at racism/neocolonialism issues of the film.
As someone who lives as a white (therefore unprivileged) member of a developing, non-white nation, a nation with very current issues of uncaring destruction of the local forest-based cultures and habitat, followed by relocation of their peoples, I really scratch my head at an over-simplified approach to issues of race and privilege and environmental rape as seen through Western eyes, even PoC ones.
The idea that people with bows and arrows and a non-tech society can take on the greed of the corporate world is ludicrous where I live (even without mercenaries and gunships!), just as it would be on Pandora without the aid of Sully's knowledge and technology.
And your points about the difficulty of showing things from an alien PoV - if this was a different sort of story - is spot on. It is difficult enough in a book, much harder in a film.

Interesting and thought-provoking review, but was it really necessary to include quite so many plot spoilers? You could have discussed the themes without spelling out the ending of the plot, leaving those who have not yet viewed the film mystified.

I think that would have been a comprehensively different review, and not one I would have found anywhere near as interesting.
I personally have not yet seen Avatar, but far from "spoiling" it, Roz's review makes it more likely that I will see it, and soon.
Most importantly, Roz said very clearly, at the very beginning of the review, that there would be "many very detailed spoilers." Nobody who reads on after such a statement has cause to complain.


I'd have been far more accepting of Jake as a viewpoint character if he had demonstrated a modicum of humility during his (magically fast and fairly Mary Sue-ish) assimilation process. Instead, he makes even his apologies all about him, and is far less impressed with the world of Pandora as he is with his own awesomeness in being able to run around in it. Childish. He expresses sorrow and regret -- even plain old realization -- only after everything has gone hugely, immensely pear-shaped, with violence and death (of Na'vi) to wake him up. This only highlights the sense of entitlement splashed across this film -- Jake is a Brat Hero.
I did not get enough sense of character development beforehand from him to attribute this rambunctiousness to a simple gratitude for the chance to walk. This would also have added some balance.

Very minor editing point. Isn't Trudy's last name "Chacon"?

As George C. Scott memorably described his sidearms in Patton -- "They're ivory. Only a pimp from a cheap New Orleans whorehouse would carry a pearl-handled pistol." 😉

Excellent review. I'd been thinking about discussing Avatar and the merits of stories about race traitors, but I didn't want to see Avatar because I gathered it was stupid science fiction (as opposed to the smart or merely adequate stuff).
I'll see it now.

PS. The first thing that made me want to see Avatar was this, from greyorm's review:
After the showing had let out, as I went into the lobby to wait for my wife, I noticed a Native American grandmother-type standing there, obviously having just come out of the movie herself, crying. Tears down her cheeks. Not bawling, mind you. Just very quietly, trying to not look like she was.
That is something the folks panning the film just don't get.

Hmf. HTML failure: "That is something the folks panning the film just don't get" is also from greyorm's review.

I am a member of NY Film Critics Online that awarded "Avatar" best picture of the year. My reviews, which appear on Rotten Tomatoes, are linked to my blog, the Unrepentant Marxist, at the url above.
I was interviewed by Prairie Miller, another left-leaning member of NYFCO who shares my enthusiasm for "Avatar" on WBAI yesterday and my annoyance at leftist critics who harp on "Dances with Wolves" and other movies where the white man rescues the natives. You can hear the show at, just look for the Arts Magazine.
Also, my review of "Avatar" is here:

Very thorough and articulate review, but I agree with all the points that Abigail raised. Avatar belongs to the increasing number of films made by their directors' inner 15-year old spoiled self-absorbed boy. The rest of my take on Avatar: Jar Jar Binks Meets Pocahontas
As for Sully as a Messiah, here's a truly perceptive view that expands and focuses your main reservation: Avatar and the American Man-Child

Lori S.

Most of the critiques of Avatar I have seen don't automatically condemn the storyline as unworkable -- obviously, it works very, very well and is appealing to a lot of (mostly white) viewers. The problem is, it's the only story that ever gets told. The reviewer's failure of imagination as to what other story possibilities exist is telling, but failure of vision is not the same as lack of choice. To pair that with a comment about Hollywood -- well, the fact that Hollywood is deeply invested in its racist and sexist tropes does not excuse a film from perpetuating them.
I strongly agree with Abigail's comments on the 'love interest' issue and have nothing further to add except to say that just because Neytiri is not a passive love interest doesn't mean that she lacks a story of her own, disappointingly so.
Also, I have yet to see anyone suggest boycotting the film. Dozens of individual judgments not to see it do not a boycott make.
Overall, this review reads most like an apology. One can like a film (book, TV show, etc.) and still acknowledge, even engage with, its problematic aspects. One needn't make excuses. This review is all excuses. Disappointing.

I would like to put big shiny blinky stars around this comment of Abigail's:
such films certainly won't be made if we allow this fact to keep us from criticizing the ones that don't break the mold
But I will not because that would be rude.

Janice Gelb

I disagree in several areas with this review: it seems to gloss over some serious plot difficulties by taking what to me is an overly positive view of the main character and his behavior and motivations. I agree that an outsider is a reasonable approach to take when exploring an alien culture, but I don't think that this particular character has quite the arc of involvement and redemption that you assign to him.
Moreover Jake betrays the Na'vi twice over, the first time deliberately by agreeing to spy on them and the scientists as a way of getting his legs repaired by the company, and later inadvertently.
I think the betrayal goes deeper than that. While it's true that his assignment is to get accepted by the Na'vi, the main purpose is to then be in a strong position to negotiate their relocation. Instead, he gets so involved in learning to be a warrior (and making whoopee with their princess) that he does not even bother to warn them about the impending crisis - even though by that time he's clearly moved over to their side - until the earthmovers are deployed and they have to flee. While the Na'vi indeed might not have been willing to move, he does not even bring up the agenda of the humans or the possibility of attack until the crisis point.
in the same period that he becomes a Na'vi warrior, he crash-learns their language partly because he is undergoing an intensive course of study when he is awake in his human body.
This is one of the other aspects of the plot that annoyed me: the implied superiority of the man of action over wimpy scientists. The scientists inhabiting the other avatars have had to go through extensive training to learn how to bond with their avatars and control them, yet SuperSully, who explicitly states that he's had no training, not only is able to run with the avatar during his first experience but is coordinated enough to fight native beasts and control weaponry a short time thereafter.
The company in Avatar thinks in short termist ways about the value of rare minerals rather than the financial possibilities of Pandoran life forms.
The corporation has obviously invested serious dollars in the research behind the avatars and the avatars themselves, not to mention building and maintaining the outpost and the transport of the personnel and materiel. The odds of that corporation then leaving the decision whether to attack the natives and despoil large portions of a planet to the say-so of one bureaucrat are low to nonexistent.
I think your review gives a lot more credit to Cameron for weaving an existentially satisfying plot than the film deserves.

Jay Vissers

Cheers for a sensitive and perceptive review. I enjoyed the film overall, especially the invented luminous ecology of the plants and animals of Pandora. But it bothered me that the Na'vi society was perfect. Real indigenous peoples have many appealing traits, but they also have "nasty bits" like genital mutilation, human sacrifice, cannibalism, head-shrinking, infanticide, etc. I wish the hero's choice of which side to back involved real anguish, rather than being so obvious and clear. But I also understand that issues are simplified in films, because of both time constraints and the sake of a more dramatic story. I'm new to this site, and am impressed by the intellectual depth and civilty of the discussions to be found here. Keep it up!

This is the best analysis I've read on the film, and I thank you for it. You are also correct in saying this film might make a difference.


thank you so much.
In the blogverse sneering at Avatar has become a whole new genre with hundreds of negative posts.
I deeply loved it, and think it represents an evolutionary stage, both for hollywood and contemporary culture.
The balance of life, a strong theme in Miyizaki (Mononoke and Nausicca especially) is also a component of the new domain of SBH (social brain hypothesis) and buddhism and islam...wahdat al wujud, the unity of existance we call it. 😉
Avatar means the incarnation of a deity in hindu mythos, usually of an aspect of vishnu into a man, animal, or mythical creature.
For hollywood, extreme tech means extreme bucks, and the financial success of Avatar means hope for.....oh...say more hitech scifi blockbusters? Ringworld? Diamond Age? Snowcrash? Broken Angels? The Mote in God's Eye?
but...i have to say...i totally experienced the movie as my inner 13 yr old.
I was just blasted with wonder, magic and discovery.
you might like this if you havent seen it yet.


also.....the scifi borrowing included the legendary unobtainium and a lot of gamer culture visual tags.....I'm pretty sure the floating islands came right out of Nagrand.


I think Avatar would make for a great discussion piece illustrating European orientalist fantasy material but I am not going in for a deep reading here except to say that I did not appreciate the Na’vi religion/spirituality treated as primitive animism until the end of the film when western “science” validates its legitimacy. One person’s fantasy is another person’s religion and vise versa as Shridhar Subramaniam, managing director of Sony Music India points out when evaluating how Indians and westerners want different forms of escapism. "A rural Indian will find a film like Avatar mundane," he says. "People flying around and having super-powers is no big deal, it's what Indians have in their religion.

Well, apart from the "Mighty Whitey" bit, an age-old trope where the white castaway becomes a better Indian/whatnot than the locals in a couple of months and is then declared Heap Big Chief and gets the local hottie (see Tarzan, John Carter, etc.), this film also recirculates Noble Savage In Harmony With Nature bat-guano.
Hunter-gatherers are not one iota more "ecologically conscious" than anyone else; they just have less technology and different incentive structures. They're not particularly Noble Savages; they're simply people with less technology. Portraying them as natural ecofreaks is just another form of using them as a blank screen to project your own fantasies, like the aforementioned "Mighty Whitey" trope.
If you can't convert animals into goods or cash, there's no -reason- to kill more than you immediately need; hunting is work if it's what you do for a living. Do people usually dig ditches for nothing? See: "Least Effort Principle".
Nevertheless, megafaunal extinctions followed wherever behaviorally modern humans intruded into areas where the animals hadn't coevolved with them, from the Old Stone Age on.
Because hunters will go for the easiest kills first, the ones that give the biggest return for the energy expenditure of the hunt.
And if you them an incentive -- usually beads, booze and guns, but simply easy-to-catch prey like moas or giant ground sloths will do -- hunter-gatherers go out and slaugther with berserk abandon and no thought for the morrow.
For that matter, when the easiest technology (driving buffalo off cliffs) involved killing more than they could use before it rotted, Indians in the historic period proceded to employ it with innocent calm and didn't even take the hide and hump-meat from the bottom layers. Why bother?
The fact of the matter is that sentient tool-users (to judge by our available sample of one) invariably severely impact their environment. Some cultures just do it faster than others, and that's because they can, not because they're particularly wicked.
Unless you have a rationalist/scientific worldview, you can't even -realize what's going on- in the process.
"Avatar" also perpetuates Hollywood's love affair with the military value of 'elan vital' and charges with horses/spears/bayonets and so forth, which it shares with pre-1914 French generals.
In reality, you can't fight bullets with targets, bravery is no substitute for firepower (not least because physical bravery is quite common), and the forest-dwellers invariably lose if they've got anything worth stealing.
There's a reason the world is the way it is.
In this particular context, the humans could just orbit over Pandora and drop appropriately sized asteroids. The energy costs would be utterly trivial compared to interstellar travel, and the process would be far simpler than developing alien-human Avatars.
No muss, no fuss, no radioactivity, and no icky hand-to-hand combat needed; just whack one of the oceans with a dinosaur-killer, wait two years, and down you go on a planet where the largest land life-form has about the size and ecological niche of a rat. And all the trees are dead.
Or you could use a few more, collapse the native biosphere completely, and terraform the place starting with single-cell organisms, meanwhile mining to your heart's delight, and that of the shareholders. At the end of that process you have all the Unobtanium you want and a new habitable planet.
As shown, the mining operation doesn't depend on the natives or the local ecology in any way; they're just an impediment.

Anna Feruglio

Saw it today, and my first reaction was that I hadn't felt the same sense of profoundly sciencefictional awe and wonder since I was ten and went to see Star Wars.
I had a lot of reservations about Star Wars, but I am easier to please as an adult. I loved this movie, and despite seeing all its faults, I agree completely with you, Roz.
I was a bit miffed that he didn't thank Roger Dean for the inspiration, because, really.


Nice review,,,thanks. But its not 'tokkar' but TORUK.
JakeSully(whats in a name!) is the cdengtral character...but Neytiri and Quaritch are also significant as female and male externalisations
comopeting for jakes allegience/soul...Its approptiatev that Ndeytiri kills Quaritch, and only after that do the the navi dream woman and human jake meet.

Matt Bright

Cameron makes clear, if perfunctory attempts to address 'mighty whitey' syndrome in the film. Jake never surpasses his hosts - he can't get the hang of riding land-animals, and when not flying quite clearly lacks the instinctive grace of born Na'vi throughout. His mastering of the Turok is flawed in the sense that he uses such an obvious trick to do it - but is at least mirrored by Neytiri taking hold of, uh, the big angry thing from the beginning whose name I forget.
The Na'vi, in turn, are as the review points out quite capable of handling themselves once they understand what they're up against. You have to give the SFnal aspect it's due, here. Sure, they act and sound like Navajo, because it's useful shorthand, but what they actually are is 12 foot acrobats with reinforced skeletons and a bioloical air force they can control with their minds.


"General George Patton . . . won his spurs in colonial conflict."
Not true.
Patton rode with Pershing in Mexico (1916) before he commanded a tank unit in France (1917-1918). He commanded an armored brigade, an armored division, an army corps, and an army in World War II.
Patton never fought in any colonial conflict.


I'd say Cameron is a feminist. He creates characters built on the feminist archetype and the whole theme of Avatar is matriarchy vs. patriarchy (with matriarchy being righteous).


"The Abyss has a female co-lead with her own arc, and even True Lies - by far Cameron's least personal film - gives the hero's wife her own personal growth arc. In comparison, Avatar's three female characters are all focused on the lead."
They made be secondary in terms of the plot but are firmly in the feminist "strong woman" (bordering on man-hater) mode.

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19 Oct 2020

We wear the masks long after penguins have been extinguished. By now we are hauntresses, hordes of extinction shuffling along the city streets under the excruciating weathers of this brutal world we’ve inherited. Individually, we are called pinguinos. It’s something to do; the world is depressed and none of us have jobs.
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In this episode of the Strange Horizons podcast, editor Anaea Lay presents Noah Bogdonoff's “Ask Not What the Penguin Horde Can Do For You.”
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