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Life's a bitch, and then you die. If you'll forgive a moment of glibness, one of the many differences between the mimetic and fantastic genres is that while the former might explore the implications of this axiom, the latter finds ways to circumvent it. As the M in the middle of Iain Banks's name on the front cover indicates, Surface Detail is a science fiction novel, and though it deals with death as one of its main themes, that death is negotiated with, ameliorated, or just plain temporary.

Banks wastes no time establishing this theme and, at the same time, wrongfooting his readers—in each of the novel's first four chapters, he introduces a main character, then kills them off. In order, then: Lededje Y'breq is murdered by Joiler Veppers, the richest and most influential person in their society and the man to whom she has been indentured since birth in order to pay a debt incurred by her father. Vatueil, a lowly soldier in a garrison besieging a seemingly impregnable castle, volunteers to join a force exploring a potential way in; though he demonstrates initiative and a level head, he is captured by the enemy, tortured, and gruesomely executed. Yime Nsokyi is killed during a devastating attack on her home orbital. Lovers Prin and Chay are already in the afterlife, suffering the torments of hell.

Now the trick: several years ago, a ship from the Culture, the utopian, post-scarcity society about which Banks has been writing for nearly a quarter-century, gifted an unwitting Lededje with a neural lace, a mechanism that captured her personality and memories and, at the moment of her death, transmitted them to the nearest Culture ship. Placed in a new body, Lededje decides to return home to take her revenge on Veppers. Yime's death is simulated, a drill she's participating in as part of her duties in the orbital's civilian militia. Her day job is as a member of Quietus, a division of the Culture's Contact wing devoted to dealing with the dead—who, given capabilities like the one that saved Lededje, vastly outnumber the living and are nowhere near quiet—and she is tasked with waylaying Lededje before she causes a major diplomatic incident. Prin and Chay, meanwhile, aren't dead at all. They've hacked into hell, or rather into a virtual environment meant to simulate it, in order to bring back testimony that might convince the other members of their species of the barbarity of the custom of consigning the recorded personalities of those deemed undeserving to such torment. Nor is the question of whether to maintain virtual hells unique to their society—Vatueil's war is being fought over this issue, but it is itself a virtual war, and following his death his mind-state is retrieved and sent to another part of the battle.

No sooner does he establish these plot strands than Banks sets about distracting his characters—and us—from their obvious trajectories, digressing into gosh-wow SFnal invention and the exploration of his latest addition to the universe of the Culture books, the digital afterlife. Yime spends the book chasing false leads, landing herself in trouble, and frequently in need of rescue. Vatueil bounces from one virtual battle scenario to another, but as he rises through the ranks of the anti-hell side it becomes clear that these battles are irrelevant. Having realized that they are losing the virtual war, or "confliction" as it's called here, Vatueil and his colleagues first try to hack it, then decide to bring it into reality by conspiring with several anti-hell, or simply opportunistic, races to destroy the computer "substrates" on which the hells are running, and in so doing relegate themselves to the role of bit characters in their own war. Even Lededje, whose quest begins quite promisingly as she takes up with the disreputable Culture ship Falling Outside the Normal Moral Constraints and its avatar Demeisen, who are affiliated with the Culture's espionage and black ops division Special Circumstances, spends most of the second half of the novel as a captive audience. As Demeisen becomes involved with the Culture's attempt to staunch the confliction's spillover into reality, he narrates the space battles he participates in to Lededje, the better to explain those battles to the readers.

None of this is badly done, and as we’ve come to expect many of Banks's distractions and digressions are more engaging than other writers' purposeful plotting. Interludes such as Yime's visit to an Unfallen Bulbitian, a half-mad, sentient space station left behind by a species destroyed in a long-ago war, or a raid led by Vatueil in which he and his soldiers are micron-thick clumps of molecules squeezing between the crevices of fathoms-deep blocks of ice, are the sort of gonzo feats of imagination that Banks has become famous for, and are, if nothing else, enormously entertaining. A different sort of SFnal wonder can be found in Lededje and Demeisen's relationship, which is constructed in such a way as to constantly suggest a romance—she's the sheltered, haughty girl; he's the rogue with a hidden heart of gold—only for Banks to remind us, again and again, that we're in another genre entirely, and that Demeisen is a machine too different from Lededje to ever consider her as a romantic partner. Prin and Chay's plot strand, meanwhile, is entirely disconnected from events elsewhere—their society doesn't even seem to be aware of the Culture and isn't participating in the confliction over the hells—but it's the most affecting part of the novel. It gives Banks the chance to stretch his already quite developed descriptive muscles and indulge in his fondness for the grotesque (in their first introduction, Prin and Chay are near a mill whose wheel "turned on bearings made of cartilage laced with the nerves of yet more of the condemned whose bodies had been woven into the fabric of the building, each creaking, groaning revolution of the wheel producing seemingly unbearable agony" (p. 46)), but it's also an exploration of the intersection of personal feelings, suffering, politics, and staggering cruelty. Forced to abandon Chay in hell, Prin becomes a rallying point for the anti-hell cause in his society, even as pro-hell politicians try to sway him by promising to release Chay, whose descent into despair slowly transforms into salvation. Driven mad by her experiences, Chay becomes convinced that reality is nothing but an illusion, and sinks deeper into surrealism as the forces governing hell try to cure her of this delusion—so she can suffer all the more by feeling hope. She spends a lifetime in a virtuality within a virtuality, then becomes an angel of mercy who can permanently kill one of the condemned every day.

Sinking into digressions, pointless but inventive interludes, and guided tours of one particularly neat bit of SFnal invention after another are all, of course, very familiar Banksian tricks, as is the fact that the larger events that Surface Detail describes—the confliction over the hells, its emergence into reality, and a conspiracy to frame the Culture for this eruption—proceed quite comfortably with only minimal input from any of the main characters. Banks did something similar with Excession (1996), whose characters were constantly on the verge of taking the plot's reins into their hands only to be distracted or sidelined, while the actual movers and shakers turned out to be a small group of Minds, the fantastically intelligent AIs who are the closest that the Culture comes to a leadership. The crucial difference between that novel and Surface Detail, however, is that while Excession might be described as a novel that exposes the Culture's inner workings (and adds another facet to the question of its benevolence by shedding a light on the Minds' manipulation of events), Surface Detail is not really about the Culture at all. The forces who actually achieve the novel's triumphant conclusion, in which real war is prevented while the hells are destroyed, are an alien race we've never heard of before. Their sudden appearance as all-knowing, all-powerful parent figures who, with rather a bit more force than the Culture would have exercised, chastise the errant children and send them off to bed without their supper feels more than a little like a deus ex machina.

Previous Culture novels, despite varying styles, structures, and settings, boiled down to very similar preoccupations. Even Matter (2008), which was set outside of the Culture and in which it played only a minor role, boiled down to the familiar template of the Culture interfering, through the offices of Special Circumstances, in the development of a less advanced civilization in the hopes of steering it towards greater freedom and equality. In Surface Detail, the Culture, despite loudly supporting the anti-hell side in the confliction, is a neutral party, and Special Circumstances are replaced by the less flamboyant and, ultimately, less interesting Quietus. The central questions of most Culture novels—is the Culture right to interfere in the affairs of other civilizations, or is it an imperialist force? How can justice be achieved through a long view that often sacrifices millions in order to save billions? Is the Culture's just, free way of life something to aspire to, or has it made its citizens hedonistic and weak?—are absent here, or at most only faintly acknowledged. What replaces them is less engaging, and less thoroughly thought out, than one tends to expect from Banks.

The dilemma inherent in the question of the hells is less thorny than the previous novels' corresponding question of the Culture's right to interfere, and Banks works hard to flatten it even further. The hells are treated as axiomatically evil, realms of pure torment and sadism that violate any code of morality. This begs the question of why any civilized society—which most of the pro-hell societies in Surface Detail appear to be—would choose to consign its citizens to the hells, but this is a question that Banks, for the most part, avoids. He does not, for example, address the issue of who ends up in the virtual hells, for what crimes, and whether those crimes might be reason enough to subject them to sadistic punishment. The only denizens of hell we meet are the blameless, worthy Prin and Chay and the pitiable sufferers they encounter. This is a strange choice in a novel that is otherwise so concerned with retribution, and with its absence. A sizable portion of Surface Detail is dedicated to cataloguing, in risible detail, the many crimes and cruelties committed by Veppers, who somehow goes beyond mustache-twirling into a whole new realm of villainy, and to stressing that there is no chance that he will ever be brought to justice. As Lededje explains to the Culture ship that tries to dissuade her from taking revenge on Veppers, "He is a very charming, very powerful but completely evil man. He is utterly selfish and self-centered, and due to his position he can and does get away with anything—anything at all" (p. 157). Somehow, Surface Detail fails to make the obvious connection between these two points—that for some people, there is a cold comfort to be drawn from the thought that people like Veppers will receive, after their deaths, the punishment they eluded in life. Rather than addressing and unpacking this possible application of the hells, Banks continues to decry them as nothing more than exercises in sadism, even as his treatment of vengeance and retribution in the real world grows more and more muddled.

Some reviewers, such as Clare Wilson in The New Scientist and Doug Johnstone in The Independent, have taken Surface Detail as a comment—a rather negative one—on religion, but this strikes me as a reductive reading, if for no other reason than that it perpetuates the all too common fallacy that "religion" and "Christianity" may be used interchangeably, and ignores the existence of religions in which the concepts of hell and the afterlife either don't exist or are significantly less central than they are in Christianity. It's true that, either deliberately or in a bit of synchronicity, Surface Detail's publication has coincided with the American evangelical community's launch into a debate over the doctrine of hell (for an instructive, thoughtful recap from the anti-hell perspective, see Fred Clarke's blog posts on the subject), in which the proponents of hell have offered arguments very similar to those raised by a pro-hell politician from Prin's society, who argues that "We need the threat of punishment in the afterlife to keep us from behaving like mere beasts in this existence" (p. 258). But it seems to me that as soon as hell ceases to be a metaphysical concept and becomes a social policy, its existence says more about the nature of civil society than it does about religion.

Of course, the point at which metaphysics becomes social policy, at which technology makes the society of our dreams, or nightmares, possible is where the Culture lives. Life's a bitch, and then you die, and if you'll forgive another moment of glibness, the whole edifice of the Culture—its egalitarian policies and byzantine political maneuvering, its well-intentioned wars and atrocities—can be summed up as a reaction to this simple axiom, and to the unstated corollary that there is nothing after death, so you might want to make life a little kinder. Surface Detail suggests another type of reaction—instead of trying to make life less cruel and unfair, make sure that there's a place after it where you can settle accounts. Rather than pitting these two approaches against each other Banks opts for what ultimately seems like a hair-splitting distinction between vengeance and sadistic vengeance. Surface Detail is, as I said at the beginning of this review, a novel suffused with death, and even as he brings his characters back to life again and again, Banks makes us feel the reality and awfulness of that death. If there's a purpose to the human characters' existence despite their inability to affect the novel's events, it is this—Lededje's rage at her own murder even though she has survived it; Vatueil's determination to survive despite knowing that he is in a simulation; Auppi Unstril, a character from late in the novel who becomes one of the first casualties of the confliction's eruption into reality, who muses, as she lies dying, that though her personality has been backed up, "So what? That wouldn't be her. She was here, dying. The self-realization, the consciousness, that didn't transfer; no soul to transmigrate. Just behavior, as patterned" (p. 518). And though he will not even suggest that there might be a good reason to send someone to hell, Banks is certainly willing to consider that dealing out this kind of death is a good enough reason to be killed in turn.

Many of the characters that Surface Detail signposts as "good" draw a distinction between punishing someone by hurting them, which is not OK, and punishing them by killing them, which is. Near the end of the novel Lededje notes that she wants Veppers dead but isn't set on being the one who kills him, and Auppi, thinking about the people who attacked her, muses that "She hoped whoever had done this got seriously fucked up . . . let the fuckers die horribly. Well, let them die. She'd compromise that far. Evil wins when it makes you behave like it, and all that" (p. 518). Banks is so invested in decrying sadism that he forgets to consider that there are consequences to any sort of revenge, to the person who carries it out and to the society that tolerates them. Which is a shame, because it's precisely in this question that Surface Detail might have made the Culture, yet again, its focus, by pointing out that the reason Lededje is moved to vengeance is that the Culture will not help her seek justice. When she discovers that the Culture will not take action on her behalf, in part because of Veppers's importance in her society, Lededje is shocked that "his position, his money protects him even here?" (p. 158), and at the end of the novel it seems that Veppers's power, and the Culture's infamous calculus of the greater good, will combine to deprive her of any chance of justice. After seven novels in which it has been decried for its high-handed interference in the affairs of other species, Surface Detail might have been the book in which the Culture is decried for standing aside—from the confliction over the hells and from Lededje’s quest. Instead both are resolved happily and somewhat bloodily, without the Culture's official interference, and solely through the actions of a few individuals who never reflect back on their societies. There is no consequence, not even the faint sense of disapproval that permeates other Culture novels, to either the official choice to stand aside or the unofficial choice to intervene. That a Culture novel is flabby, digressive, and mired in surplus bits of SFnal invention and philosophical musings is only to be expected, and sometimes part of the fun. That it does all these things in the service of such a mealy-mouthed message is profoundly disappointing. It's admirable that Banks is trying to find new things to say about the Culture and new ways to expand the series's universe, but judging by Surface Detail, he hasn't yet figured out how to do so successfully.

Abigail Nussbaum ( is the Strange Horizons reviews editor. Her work has also appeared in The Internet Review of Science Fiction, Vector, and the Israeli SFF quarterly The Tenth Dimension. She blogs on matters genre and otherwise at Asking the Wrong Questions.

Abigail Nussbaum is a blogger and critic. She blogs at Asking the Wrong Questions and tweets as @NussbaumAbigail.
7 comments on “Surface Detail by Iain M. Banks”

Very nice review, and an interesting critique of the novel. I liked Surface Detail considerably more than you did, though, and think there's a bit more complexity than you give credit to. The issue of sadism appears complicated a little by Demeisen's attitudes, and the debates in the Pauvlean scenes seemed to me to offer greater societal analysis. It's not just religion under attack as such but rather a satirizing of conservative politics, the same basic argument for imposing obligations on people commonly used for law-and-order polemics here applied in an utterly grotesque and ethically absurd fashion. With regards to the Culture's stance I'd give SD credit for more critique, in no small part from the fact that they are dislodged from the center of the plot. After an over-reaching and rather disastrous Chelgrian intervention (Look to Windward, referenced in Surface Detail) they're in a much less active role faced with about the most flagrant internal abuse imaginable, in what seems a satirizing of the Culture's usual claim to long-term benefit.
Beyond the larger issues, I also found this a much better written book than Excession or Matter, and particularly after the latter found SD a welcome return to form, partly because it was less of the basic formula than appeared in the Special Circumstances part of Matter in particular.
Anyway, a very effective review. Hopefully it can get more discussion going, at present I've been a bit disappointed that Banks' latest work hasn't occasioned more real dialog, in praise or criticism. If memory serves you haven't yet written up reviews on Inversions or Look to Windward in the Culture series, I'd be very interested in seeing your thoughts on these as independent works and as part of Banks' larger writing.

Iain M Banks' best work explores difficult questions about which reasonable people can disagree, like the morality of Special Circumstances and its interventions. This is not one of those novels. To argue against his favored side in the debate about Hell, which is really a debate about the role of punishment in justice, Banks deploys that side's weakest possible argument (unlimited punishment for an unlimited duration for any crime in a Hell we keep secret so that it has absolutely no value as a deterrent) and spends most of the book laboriously tearing this straw man down. I call it a straw man, because with respect to conservative politics it is very strawlike, but of course there are some people who hold this to be a religious truth. All I can figure is Banks wanted to show those people the error in their ways, though I can't believe many of them will ever read the novel (and as Abigail pointed out, he doesn't suggest much in the way of alternatives, even in cases where it seems pretty straightforward...can't the Culture give poor Lededje some sort of psychotherapy?).


Go back to Consider Phlebas and you realise that far too often since then Banks has been treading water, at best.
Every time I pick up a new Banks it is in the hope that he can find a milieu that will rediscover something of that first extraordinary book. It hasn't happened yet - and I read your review of Surface Detail only to realise after a paragraph that I had bought and read this book some months ago but had wholly forgotten it ......

I think the point was to create a horror so great that any despicable action is justified to oppose it, and see where that goes.
The notion of infinite hell is plausible (just about) because people do espouse it, and support it, so I guess it is believable that some might implement it.
Then the evil of this side gives a sort of moral pass to the Culture and their tricksy friends to go nuts and break intergalactic law, to the vicarious enjoyment of the reader. A bit like Inglorious Bastards (sorry can't remember how to misspell it).


A good review, but I'm not sure some of your conclusions match what is presented in the novel:
The forces who actually achieve the novel's triumphant conclusion, in which real war is prevented while the hells are destroyed, are an alien race we've never heard of before. Their sudden appearance as all-knowing, all-powerful parent figures who, with rather a bit more force than the Culture would have exercised, chastise the errant children and send them off to bed without their supper feels more than a little like a deus ex machina.
I'm not sure this is quite what happened. The Falling Outside The Normal Moral Constraints and weapon platforms take care of the smatter swarm and errant ships and generally clean up the mess to the advantage of the culture. The NR which had been featured through the book as the mentors of the GFCF having been played by both the GFCF and Veppers provided the information that allowed the Culture to go after Veppers and put Lededje in a position to get her revenge without stepping over their moral line. While convenient, this was all setup throughout the novel so was hardly in the realm of deus-ex-machina.
The key thing is that throughout the entire book we are seeing the surface detail of what is going on. Even some of the players hint that things are too convenient and that its likely other players are at work. The whole thing is confirmed by the last line of the book as the curtain is (partially) pulled back as we realize who was really running the show.

Steven Obua

Concerning the missing connection between the evil deeds of Vepper and the moral justification of hells:
This connection is not missing, it's just that you missed it. It is made clear in the fact that L.Y. wants Vepper to die quickly in the end, despite the fact that she is the one who suffered the most from him.So if even L.Y. cannot see any justification in torturing Vepper, how can any society justify the hells?


I certainly found much of the book unfocused, but at the same time, I had in mind Banks' constant blurring of the line between libertarianism and nihilism. Knowing that allowed me to enjoy the digressions without for a moment thinking that there's a greater theme going on. Throughout the Culture novels, we are reminded of how vast the galaxy is, and how ultimately inconsequential everything that happens is. Even the Idiran War, despite causing megadeaths and destroying stars, isn't even a blip to the ongoing civilizations of the galaxy. In Surface Detail we were brought right down to the surface of a sequence of events that, even to the Culture, are pretty minor. (We are led to understand that Hells and even Afterlives are maintained by only a small group of civilizations, even if small can be defined in the millions.) And that pointlessness, I think, is Banks' basic point, and why we don't get a more deeply philosophical treatment of hell and death. Evil is subjective to the characters in the Culture, as the final curtain pull in this book echoes the curtain pull that it points us towards. We may not agree with that point of view, but it's been pretty consistent throughout the Culture novels.

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